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III.B.2.N.e. Seasonally flooded cold-deciduous shrubland - National Forests in Florida Final Report

III.B.2.N.e. Seasonally flooded cold-deciduous shrubland


III. Shrubland

III.B.2.N.e.5 Swamp-loosestrife Seasonally Flooded Shrubland Alliance (A.990)


DECODON VERTICILLATUS SEASONALLY FLOODED SHRUBLAND ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance contains wetland vegetation dominated by Decodon verticillatus, generally in peaty situations. Few other species are present because the Decodon is extremely dense; the only other species that are common are Cephalanthus occidentalis and possibly Itea virginica. Some examples occur in depression ponds (these at least primarily Interior Highlands), while others may be found in floodplain pools and lakeshores (e.g., the Coastal Plain and related examples).

Synonymy:



Comments:

This alliance has been moved to seasonally flooded to better reflect hydrology of the best known Decodon communities. There will need to be a number of associations to reflect the disparate hydrologic and floristic situations in which Decodon dominates. In many areas, Decodon codominates with other shrubs such as Cephalanthus or Itea; is a pure Decodon alliance really needed, or could these situations be handled as associations under a mixed alliance? Examples of Decodon-dominated vegetation are known from Paynes Prairie State Park, Florida, Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, waterfowl impoundments in South Carolina, swamps on Fort Benning, Georgia, as well as from Arkansas.

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is known in the outer Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina, peninsular Florida, and the northern Mississippi River Alluvial Plain. It is found in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, and possibly others.

States:

AL AR FL GA IN KY NC SC TN

USFS Ecoregions:

222E:P, 231B:C, 232B:C, 232C:C, 234A:C

Federal Lands:

DOD (Fort Benning); USFS (Osceola); USFWS (Reelfoot)

Alliance Sources



References:


IV. Dwarf-shrubland

IV.A.1.N.f. Seasonally flooded needle-leaved and microphyllous evergreen dwarf-shrubland


IV. Dwarf-shrubland

IV.A.1.N.f.1 Coastal Plain St. John's-wort Seasonally Flooded Dwarf-shrubland Alliance (A.1090)


HYPERICUM BRACHYPHYLLUM SEASONALLY FLOODED DWARF-SHRUBLAND ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance consists of seasonally flooded flats (characteristically interspersed with cypress domes) in central and southern peninsular Florida, and possibly southern Georgia and the Panhandle of Florida. Hypericum brachyphyllum is the dominant dwarf-shrub. The herb stratum is typically very well-developed and diverse, and includes abundant graminoid species, especially Rhynchospora spp., Scleria spp., and Fuirena spp. Additional associates include Andropogon capillipes, Amphicarpum muehlenbergianum, Panicum hemitomon, Panicum verrucosum, Eupatorium leptophyllum, and Xyris sp.

Synonymy:



Comments:

There may be classification issues among ecologically related alliances of different physiognomies, e.g., A.1364.

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in central and southern peninsular Florida, and possibly southern Georgia (?) and the Panhandle of Florida.

States:

FL GA?

USFS Ecoregions:

232B:P, 232C:P, 232D:P, 232G:C

Federal Lands:

USFS (Ocala)

Alliance Sources



References:


V. Herbaceous Vegetation

V.A.5.N.k. Seasonally flooded temperate or subpolar grassland


V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation

V.A.5.N.k.3 Longleaf Three-awn - (White Bluestem, Chalky Bluestem) - Beaksedge species Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1364)


ARISTIDA PALUSTRIS - ANDROPOGON (CAPILLIPES, GLAUCOPSIS) - RHYNCHOSPORA SPP. SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance occupies relatively shallow to deep, seasonally flooded portions of Coastal Plain ponds and lakes, including limesink ponds from the Atlantic Coastal Plain, East Gulf Coastal Plain, and West Gulf Coastal Plain. Characteristic species are Aristida palustris, Andropogon capillipes ('wetland variant'), Andropogon glaucopsis, and Rhynchospora spp. Other typical species (some occurring only in parts of the alliance's distribution) are Andropogon glomeratus var. hirsutior, Andropogon virginicus, Carex glaucescens, Centella erecta, Coreopsis linifolia, Dichanthelium longiligulatum, Dichanthelium scabriusculum, Eleocharis equisetoides, Eleocharis melanocarpa, Eleocharis microcarpa, Eleocharis tuberculosa, Eriocaulon compressum, Eriocaulon decangulare var. decangulare, Eupatorium leptophyllum, Eupatorium mohrii, Euthamia leptocephala, Euthamia caroliniana (= Euthamia tenuifolia), Fuirena bushii, Gratiola brevifolia, Helenium drummondii, Hyptis alata, Juncus marginatus, Juncus validus, Lachnocaulon beyrichianum, Leersia hexandra, Ludwigia sphaerocarpa, Ludwigia suffruticosa, Ludwigia microcarpa, Ludwigia pilosa, Lycopodiella appressa, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Lycopodiella caroliniana, Panicum hemitomon, Panicum tenerum, Panicum virgatum, Proserpinaca palustris, Proserpinaca pectinata, Rhexia mariana, Rhynchospora caduca, Rhynchospora cephalantha, Rhynchospora elliottii, Rhynchospora fascicularis var. fascicularis, Rhynchospora microcarpa, Sabatia campanulata, Scleria baldwinii, Scleria georgiana, Stylisma aquatica, and Xyris fimbriata. Scattered trees, especially Nyssa biflora, can occur, though ponds are usually treeless. Wetland shrubs such as Hypericum brachyphyllum and Hypericum galioides are sometimes common or locally dominant in shallower ones.

Synonymy:



  • Basin Marsh (FNAI 1992a)

  • Flatwoods Pond, in part (Smith 1996a)

  • Flatwoods Pond, in part (Smith 1996b)

  • Small Depression Pond, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990)

  • Limestone Sink, in part (Nelson 1986)

Comments:

Examples exist at Paynes Prairie State Preserve, Alachua County, Florida. This alliance is near the conceptual boundary of several hydrologic descriptors, and, in addition, the hydrologic expression may vary from year to year, confounding hydrologic placement. Laessle (1942) describes an Andropogon brachystachyus - Andropogon capillipes Association from northeastern Florida, which could represent an additional association. ^This alliance needs further study in relation to other southeastern Coastal Plain pond alliances such as the Dichanthelium (erectifolium, wrightianum) - Rhynchospora filifolia Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1370), the Panicum hemitomon Seasonally Flooded Temperate Herbaceous Alliance (A.1379), and the Rhynchospora (careyana, inundata) Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1383).

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found from the Atlantic Coastal Plain, East Gulf Coastal Plain, and West Gulf Coastal Plain. It occurs in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas, and possibly Mississippi (?).

States:

AL FL GA LA NC SC TX

USFS Ecoregions:

232B:C, 232C:C, 232D:P, 232E:P, 232F:C, 232G:?, 234A:?

Federal Lands:

DOD (Fort Stewart?, Sunny Point); USFS (Apalachicola?, Conecuh, Croatan, Ocala)

Alliance Sources



References:

FNAI 1992a, FNAI 1992b, Laessle 1942, Nelson 1986, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Smith 1996a, Smith 1996b

V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation


V.A.5.N.k.8 Sawgrass Seasonally Flooded Temperate Herbaceous Alliance (A.1369)


CLADIUM MARISCUS SSP. JAMAICENSE SEASONALLY FLOODED TEMPERATE HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance is dominated by Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense. Other typical species include Woodwardia virginica, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Toxicodendron radicans, and Persea palustris. Communities of this alliance are now often being invaded by the alien tree Triadica sebifera (= Sapium sebiferum).

Synonymy:



Comments:



Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in Alabama and Florida.

States:

AL FL

USFS Ecoregions:

232D:C

Federal Lands:

USFWS (Bon Secour)

Alliance Sources



References:

V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation


V.A.5.N.k.9 (Erectleaf Witchgrass, Wright's Witchgrass) - Threadleaf Beaksedge Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1370)


DICHANTHELIUM (ERECTIFOLIUM, WRIGHTIANUM) - RHYNCHOSPORA FILIFOLIA SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

Coastal Plain ponds of the southeastern Coastal Plain, characterized by Dichanthelium wrightianum, Dichanthelium erectifolium, and Rhynchospora filifolia. Other characteristic species include (variously in the several associations) Eleocharis tricostata, Rhynchospora nitens, Rhynchospora pleiantha, Centella erecta, Juncus abortivus, Juncus repens, Rhexia spp., Fuirena spp., and Panicum spp. Isolated individuals of various woody species may occur in some examples of this alliance, especially near their edges.

Synonymy:



  • Small Depression Pond, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990)

  • Depression Meadow, in part (Nelson 1986)

  • Limestone Sink, in part (Nelson 1986)

  • Panicum wrightianum type (Kirkman and Sharitz 1994)

Comments:

Kirkman and Sharitz (1994) report a vegetation type dominated by "Panicum wrightianum" in "Carolina Bays" in Allendale and Barnwell counties, South Carolina. This includes examples at the DOE Savannah River Site.

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

States:

AL FL GA MS NC SC

USFS Ecoregions:

232B:C, 232C:C, 232D:C

Federal Lands:

DOD (Fort Benning, Eglin, Sunny Point); DOE (Savannah River Site); USFS (Apalachicola, Conecuh, Croatan, De Soto); USFWS (Bon Secour)

Alliance Sources



References:

Kirkman and Sharitz 1994, Nelson 1986, Schafale and Weakley 1990

V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation


V.A.5.N.k.12 Southern Umbrella-sedge - Beaksedge species Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1373)


FUIRENA SCIRPOIDEA - RHYNCHOSPORA SPP. SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance occurs in seasonally flooded depressional wetlands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. These depressions are of various origins, including limesink ponds, interdune swales, Carolina bays, and other Coastal Plain ponds and lakes. Hydrology varies from short flooding to that of long seasonal duration. Fuirena scirpoidea is characteristic; a number of Rhynchospora spp. also typically occur, including such species as Rhynchospora tracyi, Rhynchospora cephalantha, Rhynchospora filifolia, Rhynchospora corniculata, and Rhynchospora latifolia.

Synonymy:



Comments:



Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in Alabama, Florida, and Texas, and possibly Georgia (?).

States:

AL FL GA? TX

USFS Ecoregions:

231F:?, 232B:C, 232C:C, 232D:C, 232G:C, 255D:C

Federal Lands:

DOD (Ingleside); USFS (Apalachicola); USFWS (Aransas, Bon Secour)

Alliance Sources



References:

V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation


V.A.5.N.k.18 Maidencane Seasonally Flooded Temperate Herbaceous Alliance (A.1379)


PANICUM HEMITOMON SEASONALLY FLOODED TEMPERATE HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance encompasses a variety of temperate wetland communities dominated by Panicum hemitomon, including various ponds, lakes, depression meadows, flatwoods ponds, pineland ponds, Carolina bays, interdune swales, etc. It is wide-ranging, occurring throughout the eastern and southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States. It is very common in Florida, where it occurs in thousands of lakes and ponds. It is also common in Louisiana.

Synonymy:



  • IIE1f. Coastal Plain Small Depression Pond Complex, in part (Allard 1990)

  • Small Depression Pond, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990)

  • Depression Meadow, in part (Nelson 1986)

  • Basin Marsh, in part (FNAI 1992a)

  • Flatwoods Pond, in part (Smith 1996a)

  • Flatwoods Pond, in part (Smith 1996b)

Comments:

Data exists for some South Carolina depression meadows. Formation placement is problematic; some Panicum hemitomon communities have temporarily flooded hydrology, while others are semipermanently flooded. It may be desirable to split this and recognize two or more categories. Kirkman and Sharitz (1994) report a vegetation type dominated by Panicum hemitomon in "Carolina Bays" in Allendale and Barnwell counties, South Carolina. This includes examples at the DOE Savannah River Site. It is not clear which association would accommodate these samples.

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and possibly Virginia (?).

States:

AL DE FL GA LA MD MS NC NJ SC TN TX

USFS Ecoregions:

222E:C, 231C:?, 231F:C, 232A:C, 232B:C, 232C:C, 232D:C, 232E:C, 232F:C, 234A:C

Federal Lands:

DOD (Arnold, Fort Benning, Sunny Point); DOE (Savannah River Site); USFS (Apalachicola, Conecuh, Croatan, De Soto, Ocala); USFWS (McFaddin)

Alliance Sources



References:

FNAI 1992a, FNAI 1992b, Kirkman and Sharitz 1994, Nelson 1986, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Smith 1996a, Smith 1996b, Wolfe 1990

V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation


V.A.5.N.k.22 (Carey's Horned Beaksedge, Narrow-fruit Horned Beaksedge) Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1383)


RHYNCHOSPORA (CAREYANA, INUNDATA) SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

These are seasonally flooded upland depressions dominated by Rhynchospora inundata and/or Rhynchospora careyana (the two species currently taxonomically muddled). Some additional species that may be present in stands of this type include Panicum hemitomon, Panicum verrucosum, Rhynchospora cephalantha, Rhynchospora filifolia, Andropogon capillipes, Xyris fimbriata, Xyris sp., Lachnanthes caroliana, Fuirena sp., Lycopodiella appressa, Eupatorium leptophyllum, Pontederia cordata, Solidago latissimifolia, and Triadenum virginicum. One very rare association that occurs in South Carolina also contains Eriocaulon decangulare var. decangulare, Panicum virgatum var. virgatum (= Panicum virgatum var. cubense), and Muhlenbergia expansa in addition to the nominal species. Floating aquatic plants such as Nymphaea odorata and Nymphoides aquatica may be present. Woody plants, present at low cover, may include Hypericum brachyphyllum and seedlings of Pinus elliottii.

Synonymy:



  • Small Depression Pond, in part (Schafale and Weakley 1990)

  • Depression Meadow, in part (Nelson 1986)

Comments:

Data on associations of this alliance have been obtained by the North Carolina Vegetation Survey.

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and elsewhere.

States:

FL GA NC SC

USFS Ecoregions:

232B:C, 232C:C

Federal Lands:

USFS (Ocala)

Alliance Sources



References:

Nelson 1986, Schafale and Weakley 1990

V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation


V.A.5.N.k.28 Sand Cordgrass Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1389)


SPARTINA BAKERI SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance consists of seasonally flooded wetlands dominated by Spartina bakeri, or at least with substantial cover of it. Seasonally flooded coastal interdunal swales of the Florida peninsula dominated by Spartina bakeri may also contain Muhlenbergia filipes (which may be codominant), Andropogon glomeratus, Aristida sp., Rhynchospora colorata, Sagittaria lancifolia, Eupatorium mikanioides, Setaria magna, Cladium mariscus ssp. jamaicense, Phyla nodiflora, Sabatia stellaris, and Pluchea rosea. Additional herbaceous species in South Carolina Spartina bakeri ponds may include Woodwardia virginica, Hibiscus moscheutos, Juncus effusus, Saccharum giganteum, Panicum virgatum, Cyperus odoratus, and Juncus roemerianus. Hibiscus grandiflorus is reported from some associations. These areas are not tidally flooded, but are apparently maintained as marsh by occasional flooding by brackish water during severe storm tides in hurricane events. These storm-flooding events maintain brackish soil conditions.

Synonymy:



  • Coastal Interdunal Swale, in part (FNAI 1992a)

Comments:

These areas are not tidally flooded but are apparently maintained as marsh by occasional flooding by brackish water during severe storm tides (in hurricane events). These storm flooding events maintain brackish soil conditions.

Alliance Distribution



Range:

Vegetation of this alliance has been documented from peninsular Florida and the ACE Basin of South Carolina, and presumably also occurs in adjacent Georgia.

States:

FL GA? SC

USFS Ecoregions:

232C:C, 232D:C, 232G:C

Federal Lands:

DOD (Cape Canaveral); USFS (Ocala?)

Alliance Sources



References:

FNAI 1992a, Laessle 1942, Wolfe 1990

V.A. Perennial graminoid vegetation


V.A.5.N.k.65 Peatland Sedge Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Alliance (A.1426)


CAREX STRIATA SEASONALLY FLOODED HERBACEOUS ALLIANCE

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance includes Coastal Plain depression meadows, dominated by Carex striata (= Carex walteriana). Associations include vegetation on the outer margins of Coastal Plain pondshores in New York and Delaware or in localized swales in the New Jersey pine barrens. Substrate is typically composed of sand and gravel, but some community types may occur on organic muck. Carex striata usually occurs in dense stands with few other associates, which may include seedlings of Cephalanthus occidentalis and Acer rubrum, as well as Cladium mariscoides, Rhexia virginica, and Panicum hemitomon. Sphagnum is often abundant. Tyndall et al. (1990) describe Carex striata communities from Maryland. This alliance is also known from depression meadows in North Carolina and South Carolina, and is assumed to occur in Virginia. A Florida association is found in seasonally flooded peat depressions.

Synonymy:



  • Depression Meadow, in part (Nelson 1986)

Comments:

The northern part of the alliance's range is occupied by Carex striata var. brevis, the southern by Carex striata var. striata. The latter taxon occurs in zones of a depression pond at Fort Benning, Georgia, but not at a sufficient scale to be recognized as an association.

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia. Tyndall et al. (1990) describe Carex walteriana (= Carex striata) communities from Maryland. This alliance is also known from depression meadows in North Carolina and South Carolina, and is assumed to occur in Virginia.

States:

DE FL GA? MD NC NJ NY SC VA

USFS Ecoregions:

221A:?, 232A:P, 232B:P, 232C:C, 232D:C

Federal Lands:



Alliance Sources



References:

Nelson 1986, Tyndall et al. 1990
?


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